Non biblical references/accounts of
New Testament events and/or people
The list is not exhaustive but is representative of what is available.
- Flavius Josephus (AD 37?-101?, a Jewish historian) mentions John
the Baptist and Herod - Antiquities, Book 18, ch. 5, par. 2
- "Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came
from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against
John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a
good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to
righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to
baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if
they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of
some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that
the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness."
- Flavius Josephus (AD 37?-101?) mentions Jesus - Antiquities, Book
18, ch. 3, par. 3.
- Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful
to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such
men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the
Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the
suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross,
(9) those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared
to them alive again the third day; (10) as the divine prophets had foretold
these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe
of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.
- There is debate among scholars as to the authenticity of this quote
since it is so favorable to Jesus.
- Flavius Josephus (AD 37?-101?) mentions James, the brother of
Jesus - Antiquities, Book 20, ch. 9.
- "Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled
the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus,
who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some
of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as
breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who
seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy
at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done."
- Flavius Josephus (AD 37?-101?) mentions Ananias the High Priest
who was mentioned in Acts 23:2
- Now as soon as Albinus was come to the city of Jerusalem, he used all
his endeavors and care that the country might be kept in peace, and this by
destroying many of the Sicarii. But as for the high priest, Ananias
(25) he increased in glory every day, and this to a great degree, and had
obtained the favor and esteem of the citizens in a signal manner; for he was
a great hoarder up of money
- Acts 23:2, "And the high priest Ananias
commanded those standing beside him to strike him [Paul] on the mouth."
- Tacitus (A.D. c.55-A.D. c.117, Roman historian) mentions "christus"
who is Jesus - Annals 15.44
- "Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and
inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their
abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the
name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of
Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most
mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not
only in Judea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all
things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre
and become popular."
- Ref. from
- Thallus Circa AD 52, eclipse of the sun. Thallus wrote a
history of the Eastern Mediterranean world from the Trojan War to his own
time. His writings are only found as citations by others. Julius Africanus
who wrote about AD 221 mentioned Thallus' account of an eclipse of the sun.
- "On the whole world there pressed a most fearful darkness; and the rocks
were rent by an earthquake, and many places in Judea and other
districts were thrown down. This darkness Thallus, in the third book of his
History, calls, as appears to me without reason, an eclipse of the
- Is this a reference to the eclipse at the crucifixion? Luke
23:44-45, "And it was now about the sixth hour,
and darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour, 45
the sun being obscured; and the veil of the temple was torn in two."
- The oddity is that Jesus' crucifixion occurred at the Passover which
was a full moon. It is not possible for a solar eclipse to occur at a
full moon. Note that Julius Africanus draws the conclusion that Thallus'
mentioning of the eclipse was describing the one at Jesus' crucifixion.
It may not have been.
- Julius Africanus, Extant Writings, XVIII in the
AnteNicene Fathers, ed. by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson
(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973), vol. VI, p. 130. as cited in Habermas,
Gary R., The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ,
(Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company) 1996.
- Pliny the Younger mentioned Christ. Pliny was governor
of Bithynia in Asia Minor. Pliny wrote ten books. The tenth around AD 112.
- "They (the Christians) were in the habit of meeting on a certain
fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to
Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath, not to any
wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to
falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to
deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then
reassemble to partake of foodbut food of an ordinary and innocent kind."
- Pliny, Letters, transl. by William Melmoth, rev. by W.M.L.
Hutchinson (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1935), vol. II, X:96 as cited
in Habermas, Gary R., The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the
Life of Christ, (Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company) 1996.
- The Talmud
- "On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days
before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, "He is going
forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to
apostasy. Any one who can say anything in his favor, let him come forward
and plead on his behalf." But since nothing was brought forward in his favor
he was hanged on the eve of the Passover!"
- Gal. 3:13, "Christ hath redeemed us
from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written,
Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree."
- Luke 22:1, "Now the Feast of
Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching. 2And
the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how they might put Him to
death; for they were afraid of the people."
- This quotation was taken from the reading in The Babylonian Talmud,
transl. by I. Epstein (London: Soncino, 1935), vol. III, Sanhedrin
43a, p. 281 as cited in Habermas, Gary R., The Historical Jesus:
Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ, (Joplin, MO: College Press
Publishing Company) 1996.
- Lucian (circa 120-after 180) mentions Jesus. Greek
writer and rhetorician.
- "The Christians, you know, worship a man to this daythe distinguished
personage who introduced their novel rites, and was crucified on that
account. . . . You see, these misguided creatures start with the general
conviction that they are immortal for all time, which explains the contempt
of death and voluntary self-devotion which are so common among them; and
then it was impressed on them by their original lawgiver that they are all
brothers, from the moment that they are converted, and deny the gods of
Greece, and worship the crucified sage, and live after his laws. All this
they take quite on faith, with the result that they despise all worldly
goods alike, regarding them merely as common property."
- Lucian, The Death of Peregrine, 1113, in The Works of
Lucian of Samosata, transl. by H.W. Fowler and F.G. Fowler, 4 vols.
(Oxford: Clarendon, 1949), vol. 4, as cited in Habermas, Gary R., The
Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ, (Joplin,
MO: College Press Publishing Company) 1996.
- Though Lucian opposed Christianity, he acknowledges Jesus, that Jesus
was crucified, that Christians worship him, and that this was done by
- McDowell, Josh, Evidence that Demands a Verdict, San Bernardino,
CA, Here's Life Publishers, Inc. 1979.
- Habermas, Gary R., The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life
of Christ, (Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company) 1996.
- Encarta on the Web at http://encarta.msn.com .